Voltage References

Voltage references are electronic devices that provide a fixed output voltage. They provide a constant voltage regardless of external factors. This includes the load on the device, temperature or fluctuations in the power supply. Learn more in our Complete Guide to Voltage References.

Voltage references have different characteristics depending on their purpose. Voltage references used in laboratory applications are designed to have extremely high precision and accuracy, whereas those used as regulators for computer power supplies are much cheaper but less precise.

There are many different kinds of voltage references, generally categorised by type, tolerance, rated voltage, reference voltage and rated current. The most common tolerances are ±2%, ±1% and ±0.5%, but voltage references are available even up to ±40%.

Voltage reference ICs come in a standard semiconductor package, such as PDIP, SO, SOIC and SOT-23. The pin count may also be combined with the package type, for example SO-8.

Types of voltage references

  • Two-terminal shunt voltage reference
  • Three-terminal series voltage reference
  • Band-gap voltage reference
  • Low noise voltage reference
  • Micropower voltage reference

What are voltage references used for?

Voltage references can be used for a variety of different precision measurement and control systems such as power supplies in personal computers and analogue-to-digital converters. They are also used in scientific applications and in medical equipment where voltage variations need to be tested regularly. Voltage references are also used in battery-powered devices.


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Description Price Nominal Voltage Package Type Reference Type Initial Accuracy Mounting Type Topology Maximum Output Current Maximum Input Voltage Minimum Output Voltage Maximum Output Voltage Pin Count Line Regulation Load Regulation Dimensions
RS Stock No. 463-492
Mfr. Part No.LM285Z-2.5G
€0.483
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±1.5 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - 2.462 V 2.538 V 3 - 10 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 163-2402
Mfr. Part No.LM285Z-2.5G
€0.222
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±1.5 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - 2.462 V 2.538 V 3 - 10 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 166-3615
Mfr. Part No.LM431AIZ
€0.052
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 786-6608
Mfr. Part No.TLV431BLPRAG
€0.438
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
1.24 - 16V TO-92 Adjustable ±0.5 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA 16 V 1.24 V 16 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 806-4689
Mfr. Part No.LM431AIZ
€0.23
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 166-1672
Mfr. Part No.LM431SCCMLX
€0.106
Each (On a Reel of 4000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-89 Adjustable ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 4.7 x 2.7 x 1.7mm
RS Stock No. 166-3530
Mfr. Part No.KA431LZTA
€0.056
Each (On a Tape of 2000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Programmable ±0.5 % Through Hole Shunt - - - 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 186-8906
Mfr. Part No.NCP431BISNT1G
€0.095
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5V SOT-23 Programmable 0.5% Surface Mount Shunt - 2.51 V - 36 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 184-1464
Mfr. Part No.TLV431ASN1T1G
€7.66
1 Pack of 25
Pack(s)
1.24V SOT-23 Precision, Programmable ±1 %, ±2 % Surface Mount Series/Shunt 20mA 16 V 1.24 V 16 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 145-4128
Mfr. Part No.NCP431AVSNT1G
€0.053
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Programmable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - - 36 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.04 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 166-3075
Mfr. Part No.LM431SACMFX
€0.06
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23F Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 3 x 1.7 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 184-1482
Mfr. Part No.TLV431ASNT1G
€8.01
1 Pack of 25
Pack(s)
1.24V TSOP Precision, Programmable ±1 %, ±2 % Surface Mount Series/Shunt 20mA 16 V 1.24 V 16 V 5 - - 3.15 x 1.65 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 166-2139
Mfr. Part No.KA431SAMF2TF
€0.044
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23F Programmable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - - - 36 V 3 - - 3 x 1.7 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 162-8884
Mfr. Part No.LM285Z-1.2RAG
€0.235
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
1.235V TO-92 Fixed ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt - - - - 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 805-1337
Mfr. Part No.LM285D-1.2G
€0.56
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
1.235V SOIC Fixed ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - - - - 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 688-9323
Mfr. Part No.TL431BCDR2G
€0.39
Each (In a Pack of 2)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±0.4 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 774-3486
Mfr. Part No.LM385BZ-2.5G
€0.55
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±1.5 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - - 2.5 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 774-3697
Mfr. Part No.TL431AILPG
€0.327
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Programmable ±4 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.495 V 36 V 3 53 mV 25 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 739-0300
Mfr. Part No.KA431AZTA
€0.191
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Programmable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA - 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm
RS Stock No. 463-246
Mfr. Part No.TL431CLPG
€0.221
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.2 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm